A new model for dark matter

A new model for dark matter

This NASA Hubble Area Telescope picture exhibits the distribution of darkish matter within the heart of the large galaxy cluster Abell 1689, which comprises about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Darkish matter is an invisible type of matter that makes up many of the mass of the universe. Hubble can not see darkish matter instantly. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the impact of gravitational lensing, through which gentle from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by interference of matter throughout the cluster. The researchers used the noticed positions of 135 lensed photographs of 42 background galaxies to calculate the placement and quantity of darkish matter within the cluster. They mapped the inferred darkish matter concentrations, in blue, to a picture of the cluster taken by Hubble’s Superior Digital camera for Surveys. If the cluster’s gravity got here from solely seen galaxies, the lensing distortions could be a lot weaker. The map reveals that the densest focus of darkish matter is on the coronary heart of the cluster. Abell 1689 is positioned 2.2 billion light-years from Earth. Picture taken June 2002. Credit score: NASA, ESA, D. Coe (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Know-how, Area Telescope Science Institute), N. Benitez (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain), T. Broadhurst (College of Basque Nation, Spain), and H. Ford (Johns Hopkins College)

Darkish matter stays one of many nice mysteries of recent physics. Clearly, it should exist, as a result of with out darkish matter, for instance, the movement of galaxies can’t be defined. However darkish matter has by no means been attainable to detect in an experiment.

There are presently many proposals for brand new experiments: aimed toward detecting darkness Factor instantly by their scattering from the elements of the atomic nuclei of the detection medium, i.e. protons and neutrons.

A staff of researchers — Robert McGee and Aaron Pearce of the College of Michigan and Geli Ellor of the Johannes Gutenberg College in Mainz, Germany — has proposed a brand new darkish matter candidate: HYPER, or “Extremely Interactive Particulate Relics.”

Within the HYPER mannequin, a while after the formation of darkish matter in early universeIts interplay with odd matter is surprisingly getting stronger – making it attainable to detect it right now and on the similar time explaining the abundance of darkish matter.

The brand new range in the dead of night matter sector

As a result of the seek for heavy darkish matter particles, or WIMPS, has not but led to success, the analysis group is in search of different darkish matter particles, particularly lighter ones. On the similar time, one would typically anticipate part transitions At nighttime sector – in spite of everything, there are numerous extra within the seen sector, the researchers say. However earlier research are inclined to neglect it.

“There hasn’t been a constant mannequin of darkish matter for the mass vary that some deliberate experiments hope to hit,” mentioned Elor, the postdoctoral researcher. “Nevertheless, our HYPER mannequin exhibits that part transition can really assist make darkish matter detection simpler.” in theoretical physics at JGU.

The problem for an ample mannequin: If darkish matter interacts strongly with odd matter, then the (precisely recognized) quantity of it fashioned within the early universe could be very small, which contradicts astrophysical observations. Nevertheless, if produced in the correct amount, the interplay could be too weak to detect darkish matter in present experiments.

“Our central thought, which underpins the HYPER mannequin, is that the interplay all of a sudden adjustments – so we are able to get one of the best of each worlds: the correct amount of darkish matter and a number of interplay in order that we are able to detect it,” McGee mentioned.

A new model for dark matter

Constraints within the mass- and nucleon-intermediate coupling stage from the cooling of HB stars [25] and SN 1987A [12]in addition to uncommon Kaon decomposition [26] (grey shading). credit score: Bodily evaluation letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

And that is how the researchers envision it: In particle physics, the interplay is often mediated by a specific particle, the so-called medium — and so is the interplay of darkish matter with odd matter. Each the composition of darkish matter and its detection operate happen through this medium, with the power of the interplay depending on its mass: the larger the mass, the weaker the interplay.

The medium should first be heavy sufficient in order that the correct amount of darkish matter is fashioned and later sufficient gentle that darkish matter may be detected in any respect. Resolution: There was a part transition after the formation of darkish matter, through which the mass of the medium all of a sudden decreased.

“So, on the one hand, the quantity of darkish matter stays fixed, and alternatively, the interplay is enhanced or strengthened in such a method that the darkish matter is instantly detectable,” Pearce mentioned.

The brand new mannequin covers virtually all the parameter vary of the deliberate experiments

“The HYPER mannequin of darkish matter is ready to cowl virtually all the vary that the brand new experiments are making accessible,” Ellor mentioned.

Particularly, the analysis staff first thought of the utmost cross-section of the interplay medium with the protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus to be in step with astronomical observations and a few particle physics decompositions. The subsequent step was to see if there was a mannequin of darkish matter that confirmed this interplay.

“And that is the place we got here up with the thought of ​​transition,” McGee mentioned. “We then calculated the quantity of darkish matter current within the universe after which simulated the part transition utilizing our calculations.”

There are a slew of limitations to bear in mind, akin to a set quantity of darkish matter.

“Right here, now we have to systematically think about and embody a number of eventualities, for instance, asking the query whether or not it’s actually sure that our medium doesn’t all of a sudden result in the formation of darkish matterAnd that, in fact, does not should be the case,” Ellor mentioned. However ultimately, we had been satisfied that HYPER Mannequin Works “.

Publication of the analysis within the journal Bodily evaluation letters.

extra data:
Gilly Elor et al, Maximizing Direct Detection Utilizing Extremely Interacting Particle Darkish Matter, Bodily evaluation letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

Introduction of
College of Michigan

the quote: A New Mannequin for Darkish Matter (2023, January 23) Retrieved January 23, 2023 from https://phys.org/information/2023-01-dark.html

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